World  Business and Economic Analysis 

                                                                                                                                                    London was the most popular destination city in Europe for FDI capital expenditure in the first quarter of 2015               

In the first quarter of 2015, London was the top grossing European city in terms of FDI capital expenditure, attracting $1.68bn. It was followed by the UK city of Wakefield, which saw $1.13bn of FDI inflows.

The two UK cities were the only locations in Europe to see FDI inflows of more than $1bn, the Danish city of Viborg and Irish city of Athenry ranked joint third, and just fell short of this figure, with $960m of FDI inflows. Fifth place went to the Czech Republic's Zatec, which recorded $900m of capital expenditure in the first three months of the year. 

The chart was produced using fDi Markets, with gives real-time crossborder greenfield investment data on all sectors and locations, for more information visit

This article is sourced from fDi Magazine

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Stock markets around the world are sharply lower. Japan's Nikkei (-3.8%) led the way lower in Asia, and Germany's DAX (-2.3%) paces the decline in Europe. S&P 500 futures are down 39.00 points at 1,930.25.

Chinese manufacturing data was weak. China's Manufacturing PMI fell to 49.7 in August, making for the first contraction in the sector since February. Business Insider Australia reports that the internals of the report were weak, with new orders and new export orders both slowing. Elsewhere, the Caixin Final Manufacturing PMI reading sank to 47.3, posting its worst reading since March 2009. The yuan strengthened 0.2% to 6.3642 per dollar.

Macau gaming revenue crashed. Gaming revenue in Macau crashed 35.5% in August, marking a 15th straight monthly decline, according to the FT. The pronounced slowdown comes after Beijing's crackdown on VIP gaming, but weakness can also be seen in the "mass" revenue data. On Monday, Macau announced second-quarter gross domestic product collapsed 26% compared with last year.

South Korean exports plunged. Exports tumbled 14.7% in August, compared with a year ago, much worse than the 5.9% drop economists were forecasting. This is troubling, as the country's exports are commonly referred to as the global economy's "canary in the coal mine." Exports to Japan (-20.9%), Latin America (-19.3%), Europe (-7.7%), and China (-7.6%) saw big declines. Notably, exports to the US rose 3.4%. The South Korean won climbed 1% to 1,171.70 per dollar.

Eurozone unemployment fell to levels last seen in 2012. Eurozone unemployment fell to 10.9% in July, hitting its lowest level since 2012. German unemployment was the lowest in the region, dipping to 4.7%. There was more good news on the jobs front as eurozone youth unemployment fell to 21.9%, the tamest since October 2011.

French Manufacturing continues to reel. France's Final Manufacturing PMI fell to 48.3 in August, from 48.6 in July. The number was shy of the 48.6 that economists were forecasting and makes for the worst reading in four months. Italy and Spain also saw slowdowns in manufacturing while Germany's reading climbed to 53.3, its best level since May 2014. The eurozone as a whole saw its reading slip to 52.3 from 52.4. The euro is stronger by 0.5% at 1.1267.

Puerto Rico won an extension. Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority's (PRASA) $90 million credit-facility payment has been pushed back until at least September 15 to give authorities more time to orchestrate a $750 million bond sale, according to Reuters. Alberto Lazaro, executive president of PRASA, says authorities are waiting for better market conditions to price the offering.

Crude oil saw its biggest 3-day rally in 25 years. On Monday, crude oil gained 8.8% to finish at $49.20 a barrel. The gain capped off a 27% rally, the largest three-day advance since 1990, when Iraq invaded Kuwait, according to Bloomberg. Crude oil is now down 1.9% at $48.25 a barrel.

Greenlight Capital had a bad August. Hedge fund manager David Einhorn's Greenlight Capital lost 5.3% in August, people familiar with the matter told The Wall Street Journal. The poor August has Greenlight Capital down 13.8% in 2015 and on track for its first losing year since 2008. According to The Journal, 2008 was Greenlight's only losing year since it was founded in 1996. In a letter to its investors, Greenlight said the losses "came primarily" from its holdings of Consol Energy, Micron Technology, and Sun Edison.

US economic data is moderate. ISM Index and construction spending are due out at 10 a.m. ET, while auto and truck sales cross the wires throughout the day. The US 10-year yield is lower by 6 basis points at 2.16%.

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Hillary Clinton’s Debt to Feminism
August 18, 2015

Though she wasn’t an early women’s rights activist, Hillary Rodham Clinton was fortunate to come of age just as the modern feminist movement was beginning to expand opportunities for women in the workplace—and in politics.

  • Number of women in Congress



    2/100 women senators

    12/435 women representatives

  • Pay scale


    For every dollar that men earn, women are paid 59¢

  • Women in professional occupations



    Women managers and professionals as a percentage of the total workforce


Hillary Rodham Clinton

A high school senior and young Republican, Hillary Rodham campaigns for GOP presidential candidate Barry Goldwater of Arizona.

The Women’s Movement

Republican Senator Margaret Chase Smith of Maine is the first woman elected to both houses of Congress. She is also the first woman to have her name placed in nomination for president at a party convention. In the final round of balloting she refuses to withdraw, and comes in second to Goldwater.


Hillary Rodham enrolls at Wellesley College. She majors in political science and is elected president of the Young Republicans Club.

45% of college freshmen in the U.S. are women.


National Organization for Women founded.


Muriel Siebert is the first woman to own a seat on the New York Stock Exchange.


Elected Wellesley student government president. Volunteers for the presidential campaign of Democratic Senator Eugene McCarthy, who opposes the war in Vietnam.

New York Democrat Shirley Chisholm is the first black woman elected to the U.S. House of Representatives.

U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission ends gender bias in newspaper help-wanted ads, making it illegal to have separate listings for men and women.


First student to speak at Wellesley commencement. Chides Massachusetts Republican Senator Edward Brooke for supporting the Vietnam War.

Enrolls at Yale Law School. That year, Yale College admits undergraduate women for the first-time.

Women Strike for Peace protests the Vietnam War.

8% of women in the U.S. have completed four or more years of college, compared with 14% of men.

Women account for 7% of first year law students, and 4.9% of lawyers and judges.


The Yale Review of Law and Social Action publishes its first issue. Hillary Rodham is on the board of editors.

Speaks at the 50th Anniversary convention of the League of Women Voters.

Women account for 38% of the civilian workforce.


Meets Bill Clinton at Yale Law School.

Gloria Steinem (far left) starts the National Women's Political Caucus with prominent feminists including Bella Abzug, Shirley Chisholm, and Betty Friedan.


Campaigns for Democratic presidential candidate George McGovern of South Dakota.

Katharine Graham becomes the Chairman and CEO of the Washington Post Company, the first woman to head a Fortune 500 company. Graham and Post reporters Carl Bernstein (left) and Bob Woodward (right) are soon embroiled in the Watergate scandal.

Congress passes the Equal Rights Amendment outlawing discrimination based on sex. It falls short of approval by the states.

Massachusetts becomes the last state to fully legalize birth control, after the U.S. Supreme Court declares unconstitutional its law prohibiting contraceptives for unmarried women.

40% of the delegates at the Democratic National Convention are women, up from 13% in 1968.


Graduates from Yale Law School, one of 27 women in a class of 235.

In Roe v. Wade, the Supreme Court clears the way for legal abortion.

In 19 states, women are automatically exempt from jury duty.


Joins House inquiry staff to impeach Richard Nixon; one of three women on the staff of 44 lawyers. In the fall, becomes one of two female faculty members at the University of Arkansas School of Law.

Congress passes the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, requiring banks to make credit equally available to all qualified applicants without regard to race, color, religion, national origin, sex, marital status, or age. Democratic Representative Lindy Boggs of Louisiana inserts “sex and marital status” into the bill.

Women’s Campaign Fund formed: first national PAC to financially support women candidates.


Marries Bill Clinton at age 27. Keeps her maiden name.

Democrat Ella Grasso of Connecticut is the first woman governor to be elected in her own right.  Others had won governorships previously held by their husbands.

21 is the median marriage age of women in the U.S.

The Supreme Court rules that states can’t automatically exclude women from juries.


Joins the Rose Law Firm as its first female associate. Her starting salary is $25K.

14% of lawyers at large law firms are women.
$20,000 is their average starting salary.

Lindy Boggs is first woman to preside over a national political convention, the 1976 Democratic National Convention that nominated Jimmy Carter.


President Carter appoints her the first woman chair of the Legal Services Corporation, which provides civil legal assistance to Americans who can’t afford it.

Congress passes the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, which prohibits employers from firing pregnant workers.


First female partner at the Rose Law Firm. She earns more than her husband, the governor of Arkansas, until he enters White House in 1993.

9.5% of equity partners at U.S. law firms are women.


Gives birth to Chelsea at age 32.

23 is the median age for first-time mothers in the U.S.

Sherry Lansing becomes president of 20th Century Fox, the first woman to head a major film studio.

For the first time at any major political party nominating convention, women account for half of the voting delegates at the Democratic convention in New York.


Goes by Hillary Rodham Clinton while campaigning for Bill’s re-election as governor.

President Ronald Reagan appoints Jeane Kirkpatrick as the first woman to serve as U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations.

Sandra Day O'Connor is first woman appointed to the U.S. Supreme Court.


Governor Clinton appoints his wife as chair of the Arkansas Education Standards Committee, an initiative to reform the state's schools.

Sally Ride is the first American woman in space.


Geraldine Ferraro is first woman vice-presidential nominee of a major political party. At the Democratic convention former Representative Bella Abzug hands out "It's a girl" cigars.


Ellen Malcolm starts EMILY's List to fund the campaigns of pro-choice Democratic women.

Barbie breaks through the plastic ceiling as a business executive.

35.7% of financial managers in the U.S. are women.


First woman to sit on the board of Wal-Mart (1990 photo).

After ten years in the House, Maryland Democrat Barbara Mikulski is elected to the Senate. She goes on to become the first woman chair of the Senate Appropriations Committee and longest serving woman in Congress.


Appointed the first chair of the American Bar Association’s Commission on Women in the Profession, created to address gender bias among lawyers.

Democratic Representative Patricia Schroeder of Colorado explores a presidential run. She concludes she can't raise enough money to be competitive.


Anita Hill accuses Supreme Court nominee Clarence Thomas, her former boss at the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, of sexual harassment. The Senate approves Thomas 52-48.


Asked whether it is ethical for the governor’s wife to work at a law firm that does business with the state, she says: “I suppose I could have stayed home and baked cookies and had teas. The work that I’ve done as a professional... has been aimed in part to assure that women can make the choices that they should make... whether it’s a full-time career, full-time motherhood, some combination... is still difficult for people to understand right now, that it is a generational change.”

Bill Clinton elected president. Hillary is the first First Lady to have a law degree.

The Anita Hill hearings prompt a wave of Democratic women to run for Congress. Joining Barbara Mikulski (center) are newly elected Senators (from left) Patty Murray of Washington, Carol Moseley Braun of Illinois, Dianne Feinstein and Barbara Boxer of California. Nineteen women win House seats.


Bill Clinton names her head of the Task Force on National Health Care Reform, the first time a president has appointed his wife to a major policy post. The plan to require employers to provide health coverage to all workers collapses amid widespread opposition.

Family and  Medical Leave Act mandates a minimum of 12 weeks unpaid leave to new mothers.

Janet Reno becomes the first woman U.S. Attorney General.

Ruth Bader Ginsburg becomes the second woman Supreme Court Justice.


Congress passes the Violence Against Women Act.


Criticizes China's record on women's rights in a speech at the U.N. World Conference on Women in Beijing.

After a two-and-a-half year lawsuit, Shannon Faulkner is the first woman to become a cadet at the Citadel, the Military College of South Carolina. She quits a week later. The Supreme Court rules in 1996 that the Virginia Military Institute must open admissions to women.


Madeleine Albright becomes first woman U.S. Secretary of State; she is the highest ranking woman to serve in the U.S. government.

The Supreme Court lets stand a lower court decision requiring schools that receive federal funds under Title IX to give equal weight to men’s and women’s sports.


Defends her husband when he denies he had an affair with Monica Lewinsky.


Republican Elizabeth Dole explores a run for president but drops out after nine months, citing the difficulty of raising money.


Wins election to the Senate from New York. She is the first former First Lady to hold elected office.


Publishes her memoir.

The proportion of women U.S. military officers reaches just under 21%, an all-time high.


Former Democratic Senator Carol Moseley Braun announces her run for president and appears in six debates. Her fundraising falters and she withdraws four days before the Iowa caucuses.

A record 9 women are governors.


Condoleezza Rice becomes the second woman Secretary of State.

Washington is first state to have a female governor and two female U.S. senators serving concurrently.


Wins reelection to a second Senate term.

92% of respondents to a January CBS News/New York Times Poll say they would vote for a qualified woman for president.


Announces she's running for president.

Democratic Representative Nancy Pelosi of California becomes the first woman Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives.


Drops out of the presidential race on June 7 and endorses Barack Obama.

Alaska Governor Sarah Palin, selected by Senator John McCain as his vice-presidential running mate, becomes the first woman on a national GOP ticket.

U.S ranks 85th out of 188 countries in the number of women who hold seats in the national legislature.


Sworn in as the third woman Secretary of State.

As his first act, President Obama signs the Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act. The law makes it easier to challenge unequal pay.

Sonia Sotomayor is third woman on the Supreme Court.


Elena Kagan is fourth woman on the Supreme Court.


In June, Minnesota Republican Representative Michele Bachmann announces she's running for president. She drops out of the race in January 2012 after placing sixth in the Iowa caucuses.


Marissa Mayer is named president and CEO of Yahoo! At 37, she is the youngest CEO of a Fortune 500 company.

Augusta National Golf Club invites Condoleezza Rice and private equity executive Darla Moore (center) to become the first women members.

63.7% of American women over 18 vote in the presidential election, compared to 59.7% of men.


Defense Secretary Leon Panetta (left) and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff General Martin Dempsey announce an end to the ban on women serving in combat.


32% of women have completed four or more years of college, about the same percentage as men.

Janet Yellen is the first woman chair of the Federal Reserve.


Announces second bid for the presidency.

An estimated 57% of U.S. college undergraduates are women.

Women account for 245 of the 1,392 mayors of U.S. cities with populations above 30,000.

Former Hewlett-Packard CEO Carly Fiorina announces she will seek Republican 2016 nomination for president.

14 out of 193 countries have a woman head of government.


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کتاب عملیات بانکی در عرصه بین الملل -سرفصل ها،ضمائم ،توصیه صاحب‏نظران ارزی و مدیران ارشد بانکی

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