World  Business and Economic Analysis 


We will lower corporate tax rates by 5 percent and reduce our reliance on bonds. We hope to reduce the budget deficit by increasing the salaries of government employees at rates less than the inflation rate, Iran's finance minister Dr. Ehsan Khandouzi wrote in an article for Financial Times.

The full text of the article is as follows

In Iran, sanctions, currency fluctuations, and high inflation rates have led to subpar economic performance and a negative growth rate in recent years. Other adverse shocks such as the Covid-19 pandemic and natural disasters have further increased the fiscal pressure. Hence, the budget has grown faster than inflation — that for 2021 was about three times that for 2019.

I do not yet know what the outcome of Iran’s current nuclear negotiations with the 4 + 1 in Vienna will be. Regardless, we must take a cautious approach to our next budget so as not to upset the administration of the economy. Our government’s strategy was first to stabilize the economy and then to stimulate inclusive growth. In the past few months, part of the first goal was achieved, with point-to-point inflation decreasing on a monthly basis (from a 3.8 percent increase to 1.6 percent). The 2022 budget framework, which begins with the Iranian new year on March 21, must continue this strategy.

Given the current sanctions-related obstacles to exporting crude oil, the previous government’s strategy in financing the growing budget deficit increased our reliance on the bond market. The repayment and settlement of these debts are the responsibility of the new administration. We have also tried, over our seven months in office, to sell more oil under the existing restrictions (with an increase of 40 percent) and to raise tax revenues.

The recent mushrooming of Iran’s budget was a direct result of an increase in the government’s current expenditure, while its investments in various sectors have declined. This, along with widespread uncertainty over the country’s economy because of the pandemic, has also led to a decline in private sector investment. This, in turn, has resulted in a negative net investment in recent years, severely undermining future production and household welfare.

Against this background and in response to growing inequality, the new government has sought to change the course of fiscal policy. Our aim is to promote economic growth, price stability, and inclusive growth. We also seek institutional reforms to improve financial discipline and reduce spending.

As such, our budget for 2022, which is already approved by the parliament, includes several structural reforms. We will lower corporate tax rates by 5 percent and reduce our reliance on bonds. We hope to reduce the budget deficit by increasing the salaries of government employees at rates less than the inflation rate. We also predict increased oil export revenues.

Iran’s new budget is designed to promote equitable growth, including by increasing government investment. The public sector must play a more active role in investing in physical capital. Capital asset acquisition declined from 24 percent in 2012 to 14 percent in 2021 but, in the new budget, the share of credits for acquiring capital assets has increased by 4 percent. This is an essential step in strengthening public investment.

We also wish to reduce the growth in current expenditure. In the 2021 budget, this stood at around 60 percent. This has been reduced to 38 percent in the new bill.

Finally, we plan to increase tax revenues. Despite the reduction in corporate tax rates, the government has increased its reliance on sustainable tax revenues instead of mainly depending on oil. This has come about through substantial reforms to the tax system as well as by increasing financial transparency to reduce tax evasion and introducing a capital gains tax.

Our models suggest that Iran’s new budget will lead to positive medium-term outcomes in variables such as output, investment, employment, and inflation. The approach adopted in the 2021 budget is expected to reduce inflation significantly in the next three years. Moreover, total investment and non-oil production will grow more quickly.

Needless to say, the government is determined to keep the money supply and monetary base under tight control. This will require significant reforms in the banking sector, as well as in areas outside the government budget (such as pension funds, the national wealth fund, and so on). The current negotiations in Vienna could potentially lead to positive economic outcomes for Iran, especially in the banking sector and foreign exchange. We are ready for whatever scenario emerges — pessimistic or otherwise.



Dr Hassan Hosseini 

PHd in Finance 

Investment &Finance Advisor 
How do you get a construction loan as a first-time developer? An inexperienced developer poses a high level of risk, yet there are ways to access construction finance despite this limitation.
The construction industry is wrought with complexity. When financing a construction project, to ensure it runs as smoothly as possible, you will need a source of finance that can handle contractor delays, price increases, and unexpected expenses.
Construction finance provides the capital to fund new projects in the construction sector, mostly, but not always, used by construction companies to plug the gap between the completion of work and receiving payment for said work. This type of funding is mainly used to pay subcontractors, purchase materials, and effectively manage working capital in projects where cash flow is difficult to predict.
There are several different forms of construction finance, from secured and unsecured business loans to equipment leasing. It is particularly important for small construction businesses in the UK to get the right type of funding at the right time.
How to fund a first-time construction project?
Let’s say you have completed or partially completed a new construction project and are awaiting payment. Once you have sent out an invoice, whether it is an uncertified application for payment, a staged invoice, or a sales invoice, a construction finance lender can assess your application.
If the lender is happy with your documentation, they will issue a prepayment within 24 hours — a process that can now be done fully online. The amount available as a prepayment will depend on your credit rating and the value of outstanding billing, but it can be up to 70% of the total value of your payment application. A finance facility connected to a specific invoice will usually be less than if the application is against your entire sales ledger. This process is similar to invoice finance.
It’s worth noting that
• You can use the cash for any business purpose
• If you apply for a new source of short-term funding against new bills, an additional cash advance will be provided
• If your construction contract is complex, i.e it contains contractual debts, retentions, extended payment terms, or project-based transactions it is still possible to secure funding
How to get a construction loan as a first-time developer?
The decision for a lender to issue a building loan comes down to the level of estimated risk. A first-time developer poses a high level of risk, and often lending underwriters will be cautious when they receive an application for building funds from a first-time developer. However, it’s not all doom and gloom for inexperienced developers looking for capital.
First, as a business owner, you will already have a skill set that makes it easy to analyse and plan costs — this will go a long way to convince a lender that you understand the full costs of your development and have the competence to manage cash flow throughout the project.
This lack of understanding is why most first-time developers fail to get finance. Nevertheless, if the loan application is packaged correctly by an expert who understands the construction finance lending market, for example, via a lending platform, the chance of securing a loan for building work can be enhanced significantly.
The reason for this is construction finance is different to a regular loan application, but is more like a comprehensive business plan with project timelines such as:
• The acquisition of land/buildings
• The cost of building, insurance, marketing, professional fees, and architects
• Any potential legal issues and how they might be resolved
• Exit plan (sale or lease of the development), incl. how the loan will be repaid
Eligibility for a first-time construction loan
Construction loans in the UK are available to businesses registered with Companies House. Some basic eligibility criteria often include the following.
• Company has been trading for the past six months
• Monthly turnover of £5,000
• For a £20,000 loan, monthly revenue should equal at least £10,000
• Can apply for construction loans of up to £500,000. This can be provided on a secured or unsecured basis, depending on your project
• If you're a non-homeowner, available loans are much smaller, typically £20,000, but vary from lender to lender
How to negotiate your first development construction loan
When applying for a loan for a new UK construction project, there are three areas where you may have room to negotiate the terms of your loans: interest rate, staged drawdown, and the length of the facility. Given that many building companies will be tied up in lengthy projects that require finance for staged payments, for example, a concrete firm laying poured concrete in an apartment.
Interest rate
The interest rate you secure with a lender will greatly impact the overall profitability of your development project. With a comprehensive business plan that conscientiously demonstrates your ability to deliver on previous projects and a meticulous understanding of the minutiae of the construction costs and timelines, you can secure a low-interest rate. In addition, you can ask for the interest to be “rolled up” so it only becomes payable upon completion of the loan term or settlement, whichever comes first.
Staged drawdown
This type of lending for construction allows you to take money from your facility when you need it. Hence, you won’t have to pay any interest on the balance.
Length of facility
It’s almost guaranteed that there will be project overruns, even if the most experienced team is working on a project with tight scheduling. By extending the time you have to pay back your facility, you will have more flexibility to repay the loan without paying interest penalties for early settlements.









The 13th government unveiled its new plan to guide loans in the banking network. Explaining the plan, the Ministry of Economy said: "In an economy where the real interest rate is negative, the tendency of its actors to take facilities and not pay on time is driven, the supply and demand of money are not in balance and bank credits are rationed." This rationing leads to conflicts of interest and corruption in the granting process. According to experts, in these circumstances, banking resources are not distributed optimally and do not lead to capital creation in order to increase economic growth. To get out of such a situation, it is necessary to first make a proper rail for the banking network. To get out of this situation, the 13th government has drawn up a new plan for loans. "Controlling Inflation", "Resolving Bank Imbalances", "Diversifying Financing Methods", "Strengthening Banking Supervision Structures", "Directing Credit to Knowledge-Based Production" and "Facilitating Households and Businesses' Access to Loans" are the most important goals of this plan. .

The policy and strategic package of the Ministry of Economy for the country's banking network was published. The document is organized into four pillars: "credit management strategies", "financial discipline strategies", "technological strategies" and "self-regulatory strategies". Some of the most important policies of this 26-point document include "Prohibition of unproductive investment of credit institutions", "Deadline for submitting credit guidance policy", "Observance of new policy in lending", "Determining the assignment of surplus property", "Schedule of non-current receivables", " "Providing banking services in absentia", "Transparency in banking facilities", "The need for periodic publication of financial statements" and "Responsibility to monitor and implement the provisions of the Bank Transformation Document". Economists believe that one of the preconditions for credit management is to improve the business environment and reduce barriers to interaction with the world economy. In addition to achieving these two, it is possible to facilitate the crediting path by activating the banking network package.

Purpose of the Economic Transformation Document
The strategic document of the banking sector was unveiled yesterday in the presence of Ehsan Khandouzi, Minister of Economic Affairs and Finance, and CEOs of state-owned and privatized banks. At this meeting, the CEOs of the present banks expressed their views on this strategy. According toWBY, at the beginning of the meeting, Abbas Hosseini, Deputy Minister of Banking, Insurance and State-Owned Companies, while unveiling the document, said that its implementation paves the way for change in the economy and increase the share of the real sector in the economy, especially knowledge-based companies. The objectives of this bank document are stated in 6 cases: "Directing bank credit to the productive sector, including the production of knowledge-based and employment-creating", "Financial discipline of credit institutions", "Diversification of financing methods", "Improving the quality of credit institutions' relationship with people" These include "facilitating the access of producers and households to banking resources" and "strengthening self-regulatory and supervisory structures in the banking sector."

Banks' red line for buying currency and housing
In the first part of this document, credit management strategies are stated in 10 paragraphs. One of the most important of these is given in the first paragraph. According to the first paragraph of this document, any investment of a credit institution in the field of gold, coins, real estate, including the purchase of land, purchase and construction of commercial, office, residential and shopping centers in ways other than ownership for the purpose of liquidation of granted facilities, including direct Prohibited by the credit institution or indirectly through the subsidiary units of the credit institution. It is also mentioned in another paragraph of this document; In order to increase economic growth, the credit institution is obliged to submit the credit guidance policy of 1401 approved by the Board of Directors to the Ministry of Economic Affairs and Finance within one month from the date of notification of this strategy. The credit guidance policy should be formulated and implemented in such a way that the main credits of the credit institution are allocated to projects with technical, economic, financial and environmental justification, with priority of physical progress of more than 80% and with emphasis on knowledge-based sectors, strategic products and employment and export development. Find.

Facility to deposit ratio: 75%
In addition, in the third paragraph of this strategy, in order to make optimal use of allocated resources in order to manage resources and expenditures and direct resources towards profitable and value-creating activities, the credit institution is obliged to implement appropriate procedures in such a way that at the end of each year The ratio of the balance of the granted facilities to the balance of the deposits in that institution should be at least 75%. Also in another part of this document, emphasizing on increasing the share and role of knowledge-based companies and firms, it is stated: In line with the law to support knowledge-based companies and institutions and commercialize innovations and inventions and strengthen knowledge-based and creative companies in all provinces, After obtaining the creditworthiness of the applicant and confirming the technical, financial and economic justification of the project, and considering value-added activities and ensuring the return of the principal and interest of the granted credit, and with full supervision over how and where to use the credit and respect the ratio of resources and expenditures, Provide facilities to knowledge-based companies and institutions.

How to support the production of knowledge-based?
In this document, supporting the production of knowledge-based in line with the slogan of the year, is set as a goal. Economists believe that policies alone cannot facilitate policies to support the production of knowledge-based, but rather, the path to the realization of knowledge-based production goes through the facilitation of the business environment and the removal of barriers from this place. Being in the global value chain of production and trade is important for the production of knowledge-based people in two ways;
The first is that knowledge-based production is highly cost-effective due to scale and will only be economically meaningful at the level of a globalized market, and the second is that the competitiveness of knowledge-based production requires the optimal use of existing human knowledge and technology to control costs. In other words, the pursuit of the idea of "self-sufficiency" along with tense relations with the world is not only one of the main obstacles to Iran's inclusion in the global value chain of production and trade; It is also one of the obstacles to the production of knowledge-based. Another obstacle to moving towards knowledge-based production is interference in the market system and grammatical pricing system.

Determining the assignment of how to transfer the surplus property
In another part of the banking strategy document, 8 cases of financial discipline strategies are mentioned. The first case is that in line with the resolution of the Monetary and Credit Council entitled "Instructions on how to transfer surplus property of credit institutions", the credit institution is obliged to maximize the operational plan of selling its surplus property, by type of property, schedule, manner and conditions of sale, etc. Within one month from the date of notification of this strategy, submit to the said ministry and proceed to sell its surplus property according to the mentioned plan. The second case is that the credit institution is obliged to take judicial or executive action to collect non-performing claims in accordance with the regulations for the collection of non-performing claims of credit institutions (Rial and foreign currency) approved by the Monetary and Credit Council. Another issue is that in order to use the capacity of international markets and to interact with the international banking system, the credit institution is obliged to submit a 2-year action plan to improve its ranking within the Kamels model to facilitate global relations by the end of June this year. And take operational measures in line with the plan.

Schedule the collection of non-current receivables
One of the issues addressed in policymakers 'financial discipline strategies is the presentation of the credit institutions' action plan for their non-current receivables. According to official reports, the credit institution is obliged to submit its 3-year operational plan for the collection of its non-current receivables to the Ministry of Economic Affairs and Finance, within one month from the date of notification of this strategy, according to the said plan. Collect non-current receivables. It is no longer acceptable to reduce the ratio of non-current receivables to outstanding facilities (NPLs) by deferring non-performing receivables.

Providing banking services in absentia
In the following, the report mentions 4 cases of technological strategies. The first case is that in order to benefit from new technologies and with the aim of aligning banking services for the benefit of the people, the credit institution is obliged to adopt an arrangement within the framework of the instruction "Providing basic banking services in absentia" so that all micro-granting processes are less than 200 million Tomans and other banking services to be done in absentia. Second, the credit institution, in cooperation with the Information Technology and Intelligent Economy Development Center of the Ministry of Economic Affairs and Finance, is obliged to implement and launch the financial and non-financial information database required by the Ministry (including general and general topics) within 3 months after the announcement of this strategy. Determine the financial statements, facilities and liabilities, branches, etc.). In addition, in order to protect public rights, the credit institution is obliged to promote the culture of Islamic banking and explain the nature and function of appropriate facility contracts, provide electronic versions of the loan agreement, along with a table of installments and repayments made to the recipient. Settlement of the customer's debt will not prevent the customer's acquired right in this regard. Finally, in order to use new technologies and upgrade and improve the quality of banking services for the benefit of the people, the credit institution is obliged to submit the digital banking transformation program to the Ministry, to implement and implement the program. In this context, emphasis is placed on development based on new financial technologies.

Self-regulatory strategies
Finally, in the last part of the bank document, self-regulatory strategies are stated. These strategies are expressed in 4 cases. The first case of these strategies refers to the issue that in line with the task of paragraph 16 of Note 16 of the Budget Law of 1401, the credit institution is obliged based on the definitions and examples determined by the Monetary and Credit Council, the balance of facilities and major commitments and the balance of facilities and commitments. Relevant persons for each of the natural or legal persons by principle, interest and obligation, interest rate, repayment period (monthly), repayment period (monthly), repayment status (current, past due, deferred or doubtful), type And send the value of the received documents to the Central Bank for publication. This information should be fully available to the public and updated quarterly. In this regard, a note is given which states: In addition to the above paragraph, the credit institution is obliged to list the debtors whose debt balance (including principal, interest and liabilities) is more than one hundred billion tomans and is in the doubtful category. To publish the name of the recipient of the facility, national ID, group name, principal amount, interest amount, amount of obligation, interest rate, repayment period (monthly), repayment period (monthly), type and value of the obtained documents on its website . This information should be fully available to the public and updated quarterly.

Special Committee for Consumption of Facilities
The second case is that; The credit institution is obliged to form a special committee to monitor the use of large facilities. The committee will work under the supervision of the director of internal audit of the credit institution, and the director of internal audit is the chairman of the special committee for monitoring the use of large facilities. The Managing Director of the Credit Institution is obliged to provide the Committee with all relevant access to monitor the said facilities and other facilities, including manpower. A copy of all the approvals of the Board of Directors and all the information of the credit file related to the granting of the macro facility must be provided to the said committee before the payment of the facility. The said committee is obliged to inspect and monitor the use of the granted facilities at the place of the subject of the contract, prepare a report on the performance of the large granted facilities and send it to the Chairman of the Board and the Managing Director. The Chairman of the Board, the Managing Director and the Chairman of the Committee individually are obliged to take immediate legal action if the large facility is used in a place other than the subject of the contract and report it to the supervisory authorities (General Inspectorate and Court of Audit) and the Ministry. .

The need for periodic publication of financial statements
According to this package, in accordance with the Law on Dissemination and Free Access to Information, the credit institution is obliged to send the main interim financial statements in quarterly, semi-annual, and annual financial statements to the Ministry along with the independent auditor's report and upload them in Kodal system. Finally, in order to support production and in line with the unanimous vote of Procedure No. 794 of the General Assembly of the Supreme Court, the credit institution is obliged to return the excess interest received (excess of contract interest on the interest rate approved by the Monetary and Credit Council) to the beneficiaries. To act according to the circular number 165586/62 dated 12/10/1400 of the ministry.

Responsibility for monitoring and implementing the provisions of the Bank Transformation Document
In the final part of this report, it is mentioned that the responsibility for implementing and supervising all the provisions of each clause of this strategy lies with the CEO and members of the board of directors of the credit institution, but does not deny the non-implementation of current laws, regulations and rules. The CEO of the credit institution is obliged to report to the Ministry on a quarterly and cumulative basis (from the beginning of the year to the reporting period) the performance of each clause of this strategy based on the framework determined by the Ministry, up to two weeks after each 2-month period. The performance of the CEO and members of the board of directors of the credit institution in the correct and timely implementation of this strategy will be the basis for their evaluation.

Regarding the new banking package, Seyed Ehsan Khandouzi said: "If we want to use strategies tailored to the goals of knowledge-based production as a practical agenda of the country's banking network, the financing output should be in such a way that the productive sectors enjoy more and among the sectors Production, knowledge-based and employment-generating activities should be given priority. Khandouzi stated: From the beginning of April, a series of meetings with the presence of experts and experts in the field of banking in the Ministry of Economy was held and resulted in a strategic package of state-owned banks. One of the features of this package should be that, on the one hand, it is fully compatible with the legal obligations of banks and the approvals of the Monetary and Credit Council and the Central Bank for state-owned banks, and on the other hand, it should set priorities that the researcher will follow. Production and access of people and micro-consumers to cheap and expensive facilities, increase transparency in the country's banking network; be based on self-expression and self-regulatory mechanisms. Announcing the official announcement of this policy package to the CEOs of all state-owned and privatized banks on Saturday, the Minister of Economy clarified: Based on the bi-monthly and quarterly evaluation reports of the implementation of this strategic document of state-owned banks. He said: "We hope that the network of state-owned banks, with serious care and continuous monitoring, will follow the implementation of the decree as one of their definite agendas, and we also hope that at the end of each chapter, we can report the progress or backwardness of banks." Announce all the experts, members of the media and the general public. He added: "If we can pursue this package as the most important joint agenda of state-owned banks and the Ministry of Economy, our goals will be to achieve more productive sectors and knowledge-based banking facilities and to direct real credit to places where the main needs are in the country."

کتاب عملیات بانکی در عرصه بین الملل -سرفصل ها،ضمائم ،توصیه صاحب‏نظران ارزی و مدیران ارشد بانکی

Investment Consulting &Project Finance


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